Robot Wars UK

[ SERIES 2 ]

Special thanks to Colin Scott ('Piece de Resistance', 'Death Warmed Up', 'Immortalis', 'Metalis') for these rules.

1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Robot Wars ("the TV Programme") is a mechanical sporting event that features radio controlled Robots in competition and combat Competitors must employ a combination of design creativity, strategy and driving skills in this contest for survival

2. DATE The recording of the TV Programme will take place on a date to be confirmed by us. Dates for weigh-ins and inspections will also be confirmed.

3. LOCATION To be confirmed by us.

4. ROBOT DESIGN Robots and any personnel or team members appearing with them in the TV Programme are not permitted to display any company or product names, logos or colours. Team names may not include references to product or company names. Your robot must not be designed to resemble any commercial product. We reserve the right either to disqualify any robot or to require appropriate changes to be made to the appearance of any robot for any reason including, but not limited to, objections made by any broadcaster of the TV Programme to the appearance of a robot.

Robots should be designed, constructed and operated with extreme care at all times, using materials and equipment which comply with all applicable UK legislation and regulation including all applicable British Safety Standards.


5.1 Each episode of the TV Programme will feature at least 6 starting robots from the Middle and Heavyweight classes (these classes are described below). The competing robots will be grouped at our sole discretion in order to ensure maximum drama, competition and entertainment for viewers at home. The aim of each team is to guide their robot through a series of elimination rounds at the end of which the surviving robots will face each other in combat in "the Arena". in addition to this main competitive structure of the TV Programme, the TV Programme will include a number of separate games to be featured during the course of the scenes.

5.2 Face-off: Robots compete on a one-to-one basis within weight classifications as paired in our sole discretion or as dictated by previous elimination rounds. Contestants win by immobilizing their opponent Each match is timed at 5 minutes. Contestants must actively engage in combat.

Winners are determined as follows:

a) By rendering their opponent immobile within the 5 minute time limit. Any robot that is unable to move for thirty (30) continuous seconds shall be considered "immobile".

b) If after 5 minutes of combat both robots are still mobile the winner will be chosen by official Robot Wars judges based upon a points system which will take into account three factors: damage, aggression and control. Of these three factors damage will be the primary criteria for determining the winner.

c) If, following an allocation of points by the judges under (b) above, there is a draw between the competing robots, the audience will choose the winner by the strength of their applause. The audience applause will be based upon the same criteria as set out in (b) above (i.e. damage, aggression and control).

d) Robots may not win by pinning their opponents to the Arena surface. If a robot becomes pinned, the Robot Wars judges will require the aggressor to release the pinned robot. Robots employing a strategy of "grab and hold" before using their weapons to attack their opponent will be given one minute before being required to disengage their opponent. If, in the opinion of the Robot Wars judges, both robots are clearly locked in a "deadly embrace" the match will be stopped and the five minute time limit suspended whilst the robots are separated; once separated, the match will resume for the remainder of the five minute time limit.

5.3 Melee: This game is a free-for-all fight among three or more robots that are randomly grouped within each weight classification, grouped in our sole discretion or grouped as dictated by previous elimination rounds. The last one to remain mobile will be declared the winner of this event. Each match is timed at 5 minutes. Judging will be as for the Face-off (see 5.2 above).

5.4 Disqualification: in both Face-off and Melee events, the Robot Wars judges may first warn and, later, if necessary, disqualify robots for excessive evasion.

5.5 Cluster Bots: Robots are allowed to enter the arena as a single unit and separate into more than one unit and act as a team. However if any one mobile segment become immobile the entire cluster loses. Cluster Bots may only compete in face-off matches due to the potential for radio conflict in Melee events

5.6 We reserve the right, at any time and in our sole discretion, to change or add additional terms and conditions to the game design.

5.7 The decision of the Robot Wars judges shall be final.


  1. 5-25 lbs Featherweight Class (approximately metric equivalent - up to 11.4 kg)
  2. 25-50 lbs Lightweight Class (approximately metric equivalent - 11.4 Kg to 22.7 kg)
  3. 50-100 lb. Middleweight Class (approximately metric equivalent - 22.7 Kg to 45.4 kg)
  4. 100-175 lb. Heavyweight Class (approximately metric equivalent - 45.4 Kg to 79.4 kg)

You and the other contestants are entitled to enter only one weight class per robot. Please note that Robot Wars the TV programme, will feature mainly Heavyweight robots.

Legged (walking robots) will be permitted to enter the weight class immediately below their official weight or weigh up to 300 lb. in the Heavyweight class. Interchangeable elements of your robot, such as weapons, must not change the weight class of your robot During weigh-ins, the heaviest configuration of your robot will dictate the weight class in which your robots will compete.

7. POWER Electric, fuel, pneumatic or hydraulic.


8.1 Easily accessible on/off switch.

8.2 All explosives, corrosives and flames are prohibited. Pyrotechnics of a non-offensive nature may be allowed at our sole discretion. Should you wish to use pyrotechnics please seek our advice first.

8.3 Untethered projectiles are prohibited. Tethered projectiles may not exceed 8 feet in length as measured from the centre of the robot to the end of the projectile.

8.4 Sighting pointing lasers are allowed up to I mw - Class 2 laser. Any laser above I mw is prohibited.

8.5 Compressed gas is limited to 1000 psi and a Safety Conformity Certificate must be provided for all tanks/cylinders.

8.6 Compressed gas tanks and valves must be protected from puncture or rupture.

8.7 Hydraulic pressure is limited to 3000 psi.

8.8 Fuel capacity limited to the lesser of 8 oz. (227 millilitres) or 6 minutes operating time.

8.9 Fuel tanks must be adequately protected from puncture or rupture.

8.10 All fuel lines must be safely wired at each end. Fuel lines must not be exposed, must not have a metallic cover and must be well supported in order to minimize the chance of breaking during competition.

8.11 Fuel engines must have a return spring on the throttle so that if the servo becomes disconnected (or fails) the engine returns to idle speed or shuts off altogether.

8.12 Middle and Heavyweight robots must include a radio control fail safe system in the event of loss of radio signal.

8.13 Batteries must not generate more than 30 volts DC * or 50 volts AC.

8.14 Wet-cell Batteries are prohibited.

8.15 Insulation is required on all exposed wires and terminals connected to the motor power batteries

8.16 Hardened blades that may shatter are prohibited.

8.17 If your robot has sharp points or cutting edges, you should provide easily installed covers protecting those areas during transport and storage.

8.18 Robots will be inspected for safety and reliability before being allowed to compete. Our Guidelines for safety require sound construction and operation. This means that tethers, blades, arms, levers and all other mechanical parts and weaponry must be strong and secure.

8.19 We reserve the right, at any time and in our sole discretion, to make changes or Additional Terms and Conditions to the safety requirements, rules and regulations.

8.20 We reserve the right to disqualify your robot(s) at any time if, in our sole opinion, we determine that your robot is unsafe and would or may cause damage including, but not limited to, damage to other contestants or participants in the TV programme, to members of the public and others attending the TV programme, to the studio/location or to television equipment.

[* 30 volts DC may be a misprint -- I suspect that 36 volts was allowed as in earlier and later wars.]


9.1 The following is a list of materials and practices that are prohibited:

9.1.1 All forms of radio jamming

9.1.2 All electronic weaponry (stun-guns, tesla coils, heat-guns, capacitor discharges, irons, etc.)

9.1.3 All liquid weaponry such as water, glue (including tape), expandable foam liquefied gasses etc.

9.1.4 All physical interference between drivers during competition. This includes obstruction of line of sight, destruction of equipment, interference with transmitters and sabotage of equipment and opposing robots at any time.

9.1.5 Flying Robots (anything that makes use of an exposed airfoil for lift, e.g. helicopter). However, Floating Robots utilizing electric motors are permitted, (e.g. hovercraft, balloons etc).

9.2 Time allowed for robot repair, adjustments, etc. between rounds matches will be limited.

9.3 Competitors must be able to transport the robots to and from the areas of competition quickly and safely.

10. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Radio frequencies: only the legal band of 40 MHz is allowed for use in Robot Wars. Use of other or illegal radio frequencies may result in disqualification. Please note that 35 MHz, although a hobby band, is restricted for flying radio controlled models and must not be used. 27 MHz may be allowed at our discretion, but it is not recommended - please seek our advice. It is recommended that competitors have at least two transmitter/receiver sets on hand. Receivers inside robots should be accessible and easy to change or replace. Batteries and other components that are likely to require attention should be easily accessible. Robots are allowed to have interchangeable components such as weapons, providing they can be removed and added in a reasonable time and the central chassis of the robot remains unchanged.

11. PIT AREA Work tables and appropriate power will be provided. Competitors must provide their own tools, spare parts, batteries, fuel etc. Further safety guidelines for the pit area and staging procedures for competition will be distributed at a later date and you agree to be bound by and comply with these procedures at all times.

12. PARTICIPATION Due to the popularity of the Robot Wars event, it is likely that the number of entries in each weight class will exceed the number of spots available in the competition in each class. We shall have the right to reserve any number of spots in each weight class as "discretionary spots". we shall have the right, in our sole discretion and at any time, to determine which robots are to participate in any discretionary spot.


13.1 You are solely responsible for all costs of construction, maintenance and repair of your robot. Your robot shall comply with design requirements specified by us in this Entry Agreement and/or in further documentation issued to you. We shall be entitled to inspect the robots in order to check that their construction and operation complies with these requirements, and we, in the exercise of our sole discretion, may disqualify any robot which we deem to be unsafe or otherwise fail to meet applicable entry requirements. Any indication given by us (whether before or after date of this Entry Agreement) that your robot satisfies these requirements shall not prevent us from subsequently disqualifying your robot or requiring changes to be made to the design of your robot on the basis that these requirements are not met.

13.2 You shall, at all times, conduct the operation of your robot within the parameters of the instructions given both orally and in writing by us (or persons authorized by us) in relation to the construction and operation of your robot(s) including (but not limited to) maintaining sufficiently secure and strong tethers and with respect to weapon attachments we shall have the unrestricted right to control the operation of any robot in order to prevent the possibility to danger to any person(s) and/or property.

13.3 It is acknowledged by you that the nature of the TV Programme requires robot(s) entered by you to attack and be attacked by robots owned and/or operated by us and/or by other competitors and further, that the nature of the TV Programme is such that your robot may be damaged or totally destroyed as part of the TV Programme. You accept full responsibility for the loss of or damage to your property which may be caused by the participation of other robots in the TV Programme or by any other cause during the TV Programme.

13.4 With the exception of damage and/or the destruction of robots belonging to other competitors which are participants in the TV Programme, you shall be solely responsible for and shall indemnify us and hold us harmless and any company owned by, or affiliated with us and their respective principals, employees and affiliates, against any damage, demands, liabilities and claims for personal injuries and/or property damage that may be caused negligently or otherwise, by the maintenance or conduct to your robot, in the TV Programme, in contravention of the written and/or oral instructions relating to the TV Programme.

13.5 Unless otherwise agreed by TV21 in writing each team shall be limited to a maximum of three members who shall have access to the Pits Area and shall operate the Robot. You shall supply us with a list of employees, other personnel and team members who require access to the location and/or to the areas where the recording of the TV Programme is held and/or to areas not open to the public and we shall issue identification passes to such personnel. No more than 3 identification passes shall be issued to any one competitor.

13.6 The recording of the TV Programme shall be open to the public. We shall issue competitors with free audience tickets to the recording of the TV Programme at our discretion. Ticket prices for the public's admission to the recording of the TV Programme as spectators shall be established at our sole discretion. You will not, and you will procure that those using your identification passes will not, take any photographs or make any video or audio recordings of the TV Programme and you will not bring any video or photographic equipment to the recording studio/location without our permission.

13.7 We will use reasonable efforts to secure the location during the hours when the TV Programme is being recorded and at other times, but in no event shall we be responsible for any loss of or damage to your property.


(a) in consideration of us agreeing to your participation in the TV Programme, you irrevocably assign to us, with full title guarantee, all rights of whatever nature throughout the world and for the full period of the same (including all extensions and renewals thereof) in and to and arising from your participation in the TV Programme including, but not limited to, all copyright and all "rental" and "lending" rights and "performer's property rights" provided for in the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 ("the 1988 Act") and you irrevocably and unconditionally waive all "moral rights" to which you may be entitled under the 1988 Act and/or under any legislation in any other country;

(b) Without prejudice to the generality of 13.8(a) above, we shall have the sole, exclusive and irrevocable right (but not the obligation) to film and/or record your participation in the TV Programme and exploit those films/recordings of the TV Programme, including, but not limited to, events taking place prior to, during and after the TV Programme, in whole or in part, by means of any and all media (now known or to be devised), including, but not limited to, television exhibition (whether by means of terrestrial, cable or satellite distribution and whether in digital or analogue form), distribution of video cassettes and video discs, motion pictures, still photographs, sound recordings, interactive devices (e.g. CD-ROM or the Internet) and to commercially exploit the TV Programme in perpetuity, throughout the world.

(c) You grant to us the right to use your name, likeness and biographical data, and copies and likenesses of your robots in connection with any advertising, promotion and/or publicity for the TV Programme, in any media now known or to be devised.

(d) we shall have the sole and exclusive right to distribute, sell, license, exhibit (separately or together with our logos) and in any other manner exploit and dispose of all derivative works resulting from the TV Programme and the filming/recording thereof, including, without limitation, by means of licensing and merchandising (e.g. toys, action figures and T-shirts based upon you and/or your robot). You agree to provide us with all reasonable assistance requested by us in connection with the design, construction and operation of toys based upon your robot.

(e) we shall have the non-exclusive right, in perpetuity to use and display your name, voice and likeness for the purpose of promoting, publicizing and advertising subsequent Robot Wars events (or events of a similar nature), in connection with our corporate advertising and in connection with the exercise by us of the merchandising rights granted to us in 13.8 (d) above.

(f) if we engage in any merchandising activities utilizing your robot (toys, T-shirts, action figures) we shall pay you a royalty of two and a half percent (2.5%) of revenues actually received by us in the UK (after the deduction of ail third party costs and expenses and taxes) derived by us from the exploitation thereof if more than one robot is included in a given merchandising exploitation, said two and a half percent (2.5%) royalty shall be pro rated among the robots utilized.

(g) Nothing in this Entry Agreement shall be construed to require us to exploit any licensing and/or merchandising rights in your robot and we make no representations whatsoever as to the royalties that may be payable to you in the event we do exploit such rights.

13.9 You warrant that you own or control all the rights granted to us under this Entry Agreement, that your robot does not infringe the rights of any third party (including, but not limited to, any third party copyright, patent rights or registered or unregistered trade marks) and that you have the right to enter into this Agreement and to grant us all of those rights. You further warrant that any wireless telegraphy apparatus used in the operation of your robot is either exempt from any licensing requirement under the UK Wireless Telegraphy Acts or that you have obtained the appropriate licenses.

13.10 Nothing in this Entry Agreement shall be construed as imposing upon us any obligation to include your robot(s) in the TV Programme, stage the TV Programme or to televise the TV Programme. We reserve the right, at any time and for any reason in our sole discretion, without liability to withdraw your robot from the TV Programme, to cancel the event or to cancel television coverage of the TV Programme.

13.11 This Agreement is personal to you and you shall not assign any right or assign or delegate any duty in this Agreement to any person or organization without our express written consent.

13.12 You agree that you will not enter your robot (or any other robot of a similar design or construction) in any live and/or televised event, competition or production similar to or competing with Robot Wars anywhere throughout the world prior to transmission of the TV Programme in the UK (whether terrestrial (analogue or digital), cable or satellite).

13.13 This Agreement shall be subject to and construed in accordance with English law and the parties agree to submit to the non exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts.

13.14 All notices to be given by one party to the other must be given in writing and delivered personally or by prepaid postage prepaid, and addressed to the party at his address as given in this Entry Agreement, or to any other address that party may subsequently furnish the other party in writing for that purpose.

13.15 Competitors in the TV Programme must be at least 18 years of age and shall furnish satisfactory evidence of same if requested by us. Persons not at least 18 years of age wishing to participate in the TV Programme should contact us.

13.16 TV21 may assign this agreement to any third party.

13.17 In addition to the terms expressly set forth in this Entry Agreement, you agree to be bound by any other requirements and rules relating to the studio/location.

13.18 This Entry Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the parties, and supersedes all prior agreements, whether written or oral, and this Entry Agreement may be modified only by subsequent agreement in writing, executed on behalf of parties.




Whichever robot completes the course in the slowest time or travels the least distance will be eliminated. The distance will be measured from the starting end of the arena to the furthest point of the robot in the shortest straight line. There are three different routes to choose from favouring different types of robot. But remember, once you choose your route turning back will only lose you time and distance. Whilst the house robots may restrain themselves to certain designated 'patrol zones', they are allowed to engage other robots at any time.



The aim of the game is to knock over as many barrels as possible within the allocated time limit. Each barrel must be knocked on its side to be counted. The house robots are not allowed to enter the triangular `exclusion zone' containing the barrels at any time. However you can be engaged outside the area. Remember the barrels are weighted so they could crush your robot.


At the start of this game the ball will be placed in the centre of the playing field. On the given signal, the five remaining robots will attempt to win possession of the ball and score against the house robots defending the goal. As each robot scores, play stops and the goal scorer leaves the field and goes through to the next round. Play then resumes. In the event of the ball going into `touch', the robots will remain in their current positions and the ball will be repositioned on, or as near as possible to the centre spot. Play will then recommence. In the event of a robot going off the field; the same rule will apply, except the robot will not be able to re-enter until someone else scores and goes through to the next round. The last robot who fails to score will be eliminated.


The joust is a head to head battle between one of our house robots and your own `medieval' machine. On the given signal, both robots will charge at each other. If your robot is knocked off the platform, the distance measured will be from the start point to the furthest point of your robot. Should your robot survive the initial impact it can then attempt to gain as much ground as possible. After 30 seconds, the game stops, robots are deactivated and distances are measured. The robot who travels the least distance will be eliminated.


Each robot entering this game will be fitted with a hook to which a steel chain will be attached. On the given signal the robot will compete against one of our house robots in an attempt to pull each other as far as possible within 30 seconds. The robot who gains the least distance or who gets pulled into the pit in the least amount of time will be eliminated.


At the start of this game your robot will be positioned in the center of a raised platform. The house robots will attack you from either side trying to push your robot off the top of the castle. You have to try and stay 'King of the Castle' for one minute. The robot who lasts the least amount of time on the castle will be eliminated. The gaps between the castellations are big enough for a robot to fall through and thus be eliminated - so be careful up there!


Sumo is a one on one combat event between a competitor and one of our house robots. You have to try and stay in the fighting ring for one minute. Whoever stays in the ring for the least amount of time will be eliminated. In the event of all the competitors robots surviving, the robot who has received the most physical damage will be eliminated.


For this game, the arena will be filled with different obstacles end challenges- as well as our house robots! The harder the challenge or obstacle, the more points will be awarded. For example, knocking down a wall might be worth five points, while taking on a house robot and hitting a `back bumper' might be worth a massive 75 points. Each robot has one minute to amass their score. The lowest scoring robot will be eliminated.


In the arena the robots face each other in a timed fight to the death. If within the allotted time one of the robots becomes immobilised, the other robot will be declared the winner. If neither of the robots have been immobilised our panel of expert judges will declare the winner on a points system using four judging criteria as follows:

1. DAMAGE. (Weight of 4) 1-5 points x 4 = Score for Damage.

2. AGGRESSION. (Weight of 3) 1-5 points x 3 = Score for Aggression.

3. CONTROL. (Weight of 2) 1-5 points x 2 = Score for Control.

4. STYLE. (Weight of 1) 1-5 points x 1 = Score for Style.

The winner will be the robot who has scored the highest number of points if there has been no clear winners. This scoring system gives a fair and unbiased chance for every robot- irrespective of size, weight or power- to win!

(Please refer to Rules and Guidelines for more details on the judging of combat situations.)

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